Sometimes some mathematical results are hard to believe. One of the common problems is the birthday paradox. Suppose you are in a party where there are 23 people including you. What is the probability that at least two people in the party have same birthday? Surprisingly the result is more than 0.5. Now here you have to do the opposite. You have given the number of days in a year. Remember that you can be in a different planet, for example, in Mars, a year is 669 days long. You have to find the minimum number of people you have to invite in a party such that the probability of at least two people in the party have same birthday is at least 0.5. 继续阅读【概率】Birthday Paradox
As Harry Potter series is over, Harry has no job. Since he wants to make quick money, (he wants everything quick!) so he decided to rob banks. He wants to make a calculated risk, and grab as much money as possible. But his friends – Hermione and Ron have decided upon a tolerable probability P of getting caught. They feel that he is safe enough if the banks he robs together give a probability less than P. 继续阅读【概率DP】Just another Robbery
A lattice point (x, y) in the first quadrant (x and y are integers greater than or equal to 0), other than the origin, is visible from the origin if the line from (0, 0) to (x, y) does not pass through any other lattice point. For example, the point (4, 2) is not visible since the line from the origin passes through (2, 1). The figure below shows the points (x, y) with 0 ≤ x, y ≤ 5 with lines from the origin to the visible points.
Write a program which, given a value for the size, N, computes the number of visible points (x, y) with 0 ≤ x, y ≤ N. 继续阅读【欧拉函数】Visible Lattice Points